nicolas louis de lacaille constellations

nicolas louis de lacaille constellations插图

The Lacaillenew constellationswere: Apparatus Sculptoris (The Sculptor’s Workshop), Fornax Chemica (The Chemical Furnace), Horologium (The Clock), Reticulum Rhomboidalis (The Rhomboidal Reticule), Caela Sculptoris (The Engraving Tool), Equuleus Pictoris (The Painter’s Easel), Pyxis Nautica (The Mariner’s Compass), Antlia (The Air-Pump), Octans (The Octant), Circinus (The Compasses), Norma (alias Quadrans Euclidus – Euclid’s Square), Telescopium (The Telescope), Microscopium (The Microscope) and Mons Mensae (Table Mountain).Author:Brian WarnerPublish Year:2002

What did Nicolas de Lacaille contribute to astronomy?

Nicolas Louis de Lacaille, French astronomer who mapped the constellations visible from the Southern Hemisphere and named many of them. In 1739 Lacaille was appointed professor of mathematics in the Mazarin College, Paris, and in 1741 was admitted to the Academy of Sciences.

Who is Nicolas de Lacaille?

Nicolas Louis de Lacaille, (born May 15, 1713, Rumigny, France—died March 21, 1762, Paris), French astronomer who mapped the constellations visible from the Southern Hemisphere and named many of them. In 1739 Lacaille was appointed professor of mathematics in the Mazarin College, Paris, and in 1741 was admitted to the Academy of Sciences.

What did Louis de Lacaille do alone at night?

Lacaille worked alone at his nightly toil — he had a skilled instrumentalist called Poitevin, a pupil of Langlois of Paris, but he nowhere states that Poitevin assisted him at night, whereas he does acknowledge the companionship of Gris-Gris, a dog that he had picked up at the start of his voyage south. The Abb Nicolas Louis de Lacaille, 1713–62.

What was the focal length of the Lacaille Telescope?

The telescope attached to the quadrant was of 26 inches focal length and half-inch aperture — a miniature instrument with which, to quote Sir David Gill, Lacaille “laid the foundation of exact sidereal astronomy in the southern hemisphere”.

What did Lacaille observe?

Before leaving the Cape, Lacaille measured the first arc of a meridian in South Africa .

What is the name of the constellation in the southern sky?

Mensa, (Latin: “Table”) constellation in the southern sky at about 6 hours right ascension and 80° south in declination. Mensa is a particularly dim constellation, its brightest star being Alpha Mensae, which has a magnitude of 5.1. This constellation contains some of the Large Magellanic Cloud, a…

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Who was the French astronomer who mapped the constellations visible from the Southern Hemisphere and named many?

Nicolas Louis de Lacaille, French astronomer who mapped the constellations visible from the Southern Hemisphere and named many of them. In 1739 Lacaille was appointed professor of mathematics in the Mazarin College, Paris, and in 1741 was admitted to the Academy of Sciences. He led an expedition

Who measured the first arc of a meridian?

Before leaving the Cape, Lacaille measured the first arc of a meridian in South Africa. After his return to France in 1754, he laboured alone in compiling his data, and overwork apparently hastened his death. His Coelum Australe Stelliferum (“Star Catalog of the Southern Sky”) was published in 1763.

What did De Lacaille discover about the southern constellations?

After examining them he discovered that the definition and number of southern constellations were inadequate. He introduced new constellations and clearly delimited the previous ones, which he used in his catalogue of about 1,900 bright stars. He also revised the affiliation of the stars stolen by Halley from the Argo constellation, which represents a huge constellation of 160 stars.

What did Nicolas de Lacaille discover?

Then Nicolas de Lacaille made a new discovery which enabled him to determine all the stars of the zodiacal signs. Taken in by this research, he disregarded his deteriorating state of health until his death.

Who is the French astronomer who is best known for his catalogue of stars and astronomical objects?

The French astronomer Nicolas de Lacaille, who is best known for his catalogue of stars and astronomical objects, named fourteen constellations of stars. He studied theology, mathematics and astronomy in Paris. 1739 he was the assistant to the astronomer Jacques Cassini. Between 1750 and 1754 he studied stars and constellations which led him to the Cape of Hope. He also worked in southern Africa until he published his most famous work: Coelum Australe Stelliferum.

What constellations are in Lacaille?

The Lacaille new constellations were: Apparatus Sculptoris (The Sculptor’s Workshop), Fornax Chemica (The Chemical Furnace), Horologium (The Clock), Reticulum Rhomboidalis (The Rhomboidal Reticule), Caela Sculptoris (The Engraving Tool), Equuleus Pictoris (The Painter’s Easel), Pyxis Nautica (The Mariner’s Compass), Antlia (The Air-Pump), Octans (The Octant), Circinus (The Compasses), Norma (alias Quadrans Euclidus – Euclid’s Square), Telescopium (The Telescope), Microscopium (The Microscope) and Mons Mensae (Table Mountain). The Latin names are still in use, albeit many in a truncated form.

What did Lacaille measure?

Lacaille completed his astronomical measurements in August 1752, having begun observing just one year earlier, and had hoped and assumed that he would return home. But he records in his journal that, because of unhelpful winds, shipping to Europe was not possible until at least December, so he was obliged to find another occupation for the remainder of his stay. An arc of meridian was an obvious choice — he had been trained in this work in France, no arc had been measured wholly in the southern hemisphere (the 1736–43 measurement in Peru ran from 0°02′ N to 3°05′ S), and the result would help both to fix the figure of the Earth and to interpret observations made from France and the Cape for the determination of the parallax of the Moon.

What did Lacaille do?

Much of his training had been in geodesy, through participation in measurements of arcs of meridian within France. He had been appointed Professor of Mathematics at the Collège Mazarin in 1739 and was known among other things for observations of stellar and planetary positions, occultations, computation of orbits, and for astronomical and mathematical textbooks. Known also for his skill and energy, he was an obvious choice for the observation and description of the southern sky, a task expected to take about a year.

What constellations are in the southern sky?

In the middle of the 18th century there were already several defined southern constellations: Centaurus, Lupus, Crux Australis, Corona Australis and the southern extension of Argo, all of which had been introduced by early Portuguese navigators, plus Apus, Tucana, Grus, Phoenix, Doradus, Pisces Volans, Hydrus, Chamaeleon, Musca, Triangulum Australis, Indus and Pavo, which had been invented by the 17th century Dutch navigators Petrus Theodori and Friedrick Houtmann. Of course, one did not need to sail south of the Equator to see the southern sky, and the first recorded use of the Southern Cross for navigational purposes is by the Venetian Alvise da Cadamosto off the shore of the Gambia in about 1455.

When did Lacaille complete his work?

Lacaille completed his work at the Cape and sailed on 8 March 1753, but for Mauritius and Reunion, not for France, having been ordered there to determine the longitudes of those islands. After 10 months, during which, in his own words, he was “bored to tears”, he managed to decamp and arrived back in France in June 1754. Part of his Cape material appeared in Astronomiae Fundamenta in 1757, which contained a catalogue of 398 bright stars of both hemispheres, but his early death in March 1762 precluded publication of most of his results. His mass of stellar positional measurements was finally reduced and worked by Francis Baily into a catalogue that was published by the British Association only in 1847.

Where was the observatory that Lacaille set up?

The observatory that Lacaille set up in Cape Town was located in the rear courtyard of a private house near the shore of Table Bay, at No. 7, Strand Street (a site long obliterated through commercial development, though a brass plaque commemorates its former existence). It was from there, with the employment of a zenith sector and a sextant, both of six feet radius, and a three-foot quadrant, that he made his star catalogue. Finding Cape Town windy, he fixed the quadrant firmly and used it as a meridian instrument, timing the passage of stars through a rhomboidal reticle in the eyepiece, which gave him differential declination and right ascensions from timings alone. The telescope attached to the quadrant was of 26 inches focal length and half-inch aperture — a miniature instrument with which, to quote Sir David Gill, Lacaille “laid the foundation of exact sidereal astronomy in the southern hemisphere”. Lacaille worked alone at his nightly toil — he had a skilled instrumentalist called Poitevin, a pupil of Langlois of Paris, but he nowhere states that Poitevin assisted him at night, whereas he does acknowledge the companionship of Gris-Gris, a dog that he had picked up at the start of his voyage south.

Did Lacaille accept the inverse square law?

Although there is no doubt that Lacaille accepted the inverse square law of gravitation when applied to planetary attractions — he was, after all, an expert on orbits, including perturbation theory — one deduces that he was resistant to the Newtonian concept of all mass attracting all other mass. There is no mention of this effect in any of Lacaille’s works; in particular, as Maclear wrote on 7 May 1846 in a letter to George Airy concerning Lacaille’s published description of his measurement of the arc, his “total silence upon the influence of this mass (Piketberg) and of Table Mountain suggests he was ignorant of Bouguer’s experiment, or that he underrated the amount. It is certainly singular that he made no allusion to the subject as far as I know”. (Pierre Bouguer led the French expedition in 1735 to measure an arc of meridian near the equator in Peru. The attractive effect of the Andes was detected, but was less than expected, a result later explained by Airy as an effect of isostasy.) The fact that Lacaille was taught by Jacques Cassini (1677–1756), who was notoriously anti-Newton and went to his grave (as did many other distinguished French mathematicians and astronomers of the time) firmly supporting Descartes rather than Newton in these matters, suggests that he was unable to shake free from these early prejudices. It is self evident that no astronomer or surveyor who had even a suspicion of the deleterious effects mountains might have on the veracity of a plumb bob (and hence the reputation of an observer) would place himself at the foot of a mountain mass when undertaking such a task as the first measurement of an arc of meridian in the southern hemisphere.

What constellations does Lacaille have?

In addition to Antlia and Horologium, Lacaille’s constellations include a Sculptor’s Chisel (Caela Sculptoris), The Draftsman’s Compass (Circinus), a Chemical Furnace (Fornax Chemica), a Carpenter’s Square (Norma), Hadley’s Octant (Octans Hadleianus), a Painter’s Easel (Equuleus Pictoris), a Sculptor’s Workshop (Apparatus Sculptoris), a Microscope (Microscopium) and a Telescope (Telescopium).

Why did Lacaille create constellations?

Unlike many of the larger, brighter constellations, which were chiefly based on mythology and legend, Lacaille chose to fill uncharted areas of the southern sky with new constellations representing inanimate objects — apparently a personal resolution he made to honor craftsmen by their tools and inventions.

How many constellations are there in the universe?

Despite being composed chiefly of dim, faint stars, the pattern is still on the official list of 88 constellations recognized by the International Astronomical Union, though its name has since been shortened simply to Antlia, the Pump.

Is Pyxis Nautica still recognized?

Only Pyxis Nautica is still recognized to this day. Ironically, it probably would have been more appropriate to have kept the star pattern Malus. Argo Navis certainly had a mast, but the Argonauts lacked a compass.

Who was the first person to study the sky?

Nicolas-Louis de Lacaille (1713-1762) is considered a pioneer in astronomy. Between 1751 and 1754, he traveled from his native France to South Africa to survey the skies invisible from his homeland. He was stationed at the Cape of Good Hope, where he catalogued the positions of 9,766 southern stars in just 11 months.

Who is Joe Rao?

Joe Rao is Space.com’s skywatching columnist, as well as a veteran meteorologist and eclipse chaser who also serves as an instructor and guest lecturer at New York’s Hayden Planetarium. He writes about astronomy for Natural History magazine, the Farmers’ Almanac and other publications.

How many stars did Halley find?

During the time until the beginning of August 1752, he determined the positions of 9,800 stars between the celestial south pole and the tropic of Capricorn; among these stars were the 42 "nebulous stars" he described in his catalog. Moreover, he obtained acurate positions for 240 priciple stars, and extracted 1,930 stars visible to the naked eye for creating a planisphere. He delineated 15 new constellations, 14 of which are still in use today, rejecting Halley’s former constellation of "Robur Carolinum," and decomposed old constellation Argo into its parts, Carina, Puppis and Vela. He also took numerous measurements of the positions of the Sun, the Moon, Venus and Mars in order to obtain parallaxes.

Where did the Lacaille family come from?

The Lacaille family had their origins in Paris, where Pierre I de la Caille was established as goldsmith around 1540. His son Pierre II followed the same business, with some military interruptions in service for King Henri IV. Pierre II had 13 children including 12 boys, who became advocates at the Parliament, cavalry men in the Royal guard, printers, publishers, and again goldsmiths. One of them, Pierre III, settled to Rumigny (Ardennes). His son, Raulin became provost of the barony of Gonzague, and was appointed as police official by the Duchess of Guise, an aunt of Charles de Gonzague. Raulin had two sons, Pierre (born 1611) and Charles (born 1645). Pierre followed his father in the judical appointment, while Charles was appointed as a clerk of the court at Rumigny. Charles had six daughters and three sons; two of the sons ran clerical careers while the third was Charles-Louis, father of Nicholas Louis.

What did Lacaille do in 1750?

Daprès, at Lorient, to enter an expedition to the Cape of Good Hope. They left in the morning of November 21. Lacaille reports that in the evening of that day he was seasick, and remained so for three weeks. In the first days of December they passed Madeira, heading for Rio de Janeiro (Brazil) which was reached on January 26, 1751. They had a stay of almost a month, which Lacaille used for numerous physical, geographic and astronomical measurements. On February 25, 1751, the crew set sail and left heading to South Africa, getting sight of the coast on March 30, 1751 and eventually going ashore on April 20, 1751 at the Cape of Good Hope. Lacaille established an observatory and on August 6, 1751, started to scan the southern skies for one year.

What did Charles Louis do?

Charles-Louis first served as an officer in the artillery and then in the royal guard. In peace times he got engaged in commerce and studied applied and engeneering sciences, in particular mechanics, and constructed some machines of his own invention. First living in some prosperrity, he ruined himself by attempting to run a paper mill which failed. The Duke of Bourbon, minister from 1723 to 1726, put him at the head of a colonial project scheduled for America in 1725 and sent him to Nantes for some time, until the project was abandoned. Charles-Louis then was appointed by the Duchess of Vendôme as a guardian and huntsman at Anet, west of Paris, a post formerly hold by Pierre III.

What is the title of Nicholas Louis de la Caille’s book?

Nicholas Louis de la Caille, 1755. Sur les étoiles nébuleuses du Ciel Austral [On the nebulous stars of the Southern Sky]. Memoirs of the Royal Academy for 1755 (Paris), pp. 194-199.

Where did Nicholas Louis study?

He then studied the humanities at the college of Mantes-sur-Seine, northwest of Paris, until 1729. In the two years following, he went to study rhetoric at the college of Lisieux in Paris, where he actually studied a multitude of topics in history, antiques, mythology, and Latin poetry. When his father died in 1731, he left him with a heavy load of debts and without resources. Nevertheless, Nicholas Louis completed his philosophical studies, because of a good reputation for assiduity and support by his patron, the Duke of Bourbon. Afterwards, he enroled for a three-year study at the college of Navarre, for obtaining ordination for priesthood. During this time he first contacted mathematics, and did his first private studies of astronomy.

Who wrote the search for the nebula?

Kenneth Glyn Jones , 1969. The Search for the Nebulae — VI. Journal of the British Astronomical Association, Vol. 79, No. 3 (1969), pp. 213-222. Section on Lacaille: p. 213-218. Reprinted in: The Search for the Nebulae. Chalfont St. Giles, 1975.

What is the constellation of Lacaille named after?

Symbolising an air pump, one of the constellations named after scientific instruments by astronomer Lacaille who also determined the positions of some 10,000 stars (6)

How many 90 degree sectors are there in a circle?

Each one of the four 90degrees sectors of a circle’s circumference (8)

What instrument does Big Cat Swallows master on?

Big cat swallows master on bass instrument after dinner in Italian restaurant (10)

Who named the constellations after scientific instruments?

One of the constellations named by French astronomer Nicolas Louis de Lacaille after scientific instruments (5) One of the instruments used to perform Le Cygne (The Swan) in SaintSaens’s The Carnival of the Anima.