## How do you represent QPSK signals?

Therefore, on a two dimensional co-ordinate system with the axes set to and , the QPSK signal is represented by four constellation points dictated by the vectors with . The QPSK transmitter, shown in Figure 1, is implemented as a matlab function qpsk_mod.

## What happens to the QPSK signal after the OQPSK imaginary-component delay?

After the OQPSK imaginary-component delay, the signal is normalized with unity power. Example: ‘PhaseOffset’,pi/4 aligns the zeroth point of the QPSK signal constellation point on the axes, { (1,0), (0,j), (-1,0), (0,-j)}.

## What is the difference between QPSK and OQPSK modulation?

With this modulation compromise between QPSK and OQPSK is done and maximum phase transition of about 135 degree is achieved. In the presence of the multipath spread and fading conditions, pi/4 QPSK perform better than OQPSK. This signal is demodulated in coherent and non-coherent fashion and hence the design of the receiver will be simple.

## How to obtain pi/4 QPSK modulation scheme?

pi/4 QPSK modulation scheme is obtained by adding additional π/4 phase shift in the phase of the carriers of the symbols. Table mentions phase output values for different input bit combinations for both the QPSK and pi/4QPSK modulations.

## What is pi/4 QPSK?

**π/4 shifted version of QPSK ** is referred as pi/4 QPSK . With this modulation compromise between QPSK and OQPSK is done and maximum phase transition of about 135 degree is achieved.

## How does phase transition work in constellation diagram?

As shown above in the constellation diagram,** phase transition goes through the origin ** and this results into suddon phase reversal in the time domain signal envelope. When such signal goes through the nonlinear amplification will result into spectrum widening. To overcome regeneration of sidelobes and spectrum widening, linear amplifier is employed. But linear amplifiers are less efficient. Hence OQPSK has been developed. OQPSK prevents phase transition from the origin by shifting one stream by a bit period and allowing only one bit to change between the transitions.

## What is odd and even in QPSK?

In QPSK,** first input bit stream is split into two bit streams referred as odd and even **. These streams are applied simultaneously to the mixers.

## Is OQPSK the same as QPSK?

Power spectral** density (PSD) of OQPSK modulated spectrum is same ** as QPSK. Pls. note offset in bit stream will not have any effect on the PSD.

## Do non linear amplifiers cause spectral regrowth?

less demands of linear amplifiers, efficient** non ** linear amplifier can be employed and they do** not ** cause much** spectral regrowth, ** as one of the bits changes the phase at a time and occurs twice during the symbol period with half the intensity of QPSK. Phase transitions avoid zero crossing.

## What is baseband data?

We call the baseband data IQ data as it is typically** a complex data stream with real and imaginary components, "I" is in-phase and represents the real portion and "Q" is the quadrature-phase and represents the imaginary components. ** This is certainly the case with QPSK, we take every other bit and assign it to the real axis and the others to the imaginary axis to get I+jQ at baseband.

## How to move signal to DC?

That said, to move your signal back to DC, simply** multiply by $e^{-j2pi f_c t}$ which will shift both spectrums to the left, and ** you will get** one at DC and another that is at $-2 f_c$ **. It is possible here that the spectrum will be inverted, as I did not follow the math carefully in my processing described, in that case it would be better to multiply by $e^{-j2pi f_c t}$, or simply swap I and Q and change the sign of Q which will also invert the spectrum. You then need to filter out the higher frequency signal that will be at twice the carrier frequency in order to get your baseband constellation only. This is the part I am surprised you would have to do as a homework problem; and if you had access to the noise samples at baseband this would be much easier but given the way the noise was added it doesn’t appear that you do?

## How many Q&A communities are there on Stack Exchange?

Stack Exchange network consists of** 178 ** Q&A communities including Stack Overflow, the largest, most trusted online community for developers to learn, share their knowledge, and build their careers.

## How many conjugate symmetric spectrums are there?

Since your signal is real, there will be** two ** complex conjugate symmetric spectrums, one at $+f_c$ and one at $-f_c$. (When I took the real part of what was originally just a spectrum at $-f_c$, the companion spectrum at $+f_c$ is immediately created by the operation of taking the real part).

## What is the meaning of "back up"?

Making statements based on opinion; back them up** with references or personal experience. **

## Is it easier to plot a constellation with noise?

Actually, by taking the average, the required low pass filtering will also be done (by nature of averaging is a low pass filter).** So such a result for the constellation with noise is actually easier achieved when plotting one sample per symbol. **

## What is the purpose of the modulator object?

Use the modulator object** to apply OQPSK modulation and transmit filtering to the input data. **

## What object to use to initialize an OQPSK modulator?

Use the** demodulator ** object to initialize an OQPSK modulator while creating it.

## How does OQPSK modulation work?

The OQPSK modulation scheme requires oversampling of two or greater in order to delay (or offset) the quadrature channel by 90 degrees. This oversampling is achieved through interpolation filtering implemented by pulse shaping.

## What is digital demodulation?

Digital modulation and demodulation objects incur delays between their inputs and outputs that result in an offset** in the arrival sample of the received data. ** When comparing transmitted data with received data, such as when plotting or computing error statistics, you must take system delays into account. As shown here, the OQPSK modulation-demodulation delay varies depending on the pulse shaping filter and the input/output settings of the object pairs.

## What is comm.oqpskmodulator?

The comm.OQPSKModulator** object modulates the input signal using the offset quadrature phase shift keying (OQPSK) method and applies pulse shape filtering to ** the** output waveform. ** For more information, see Pulse Shaping Filter. The output is a baseband representation of the modulated signal.

## What is phase offset?

Phase offset from π/4, specified as** a scalar in radians. ** The phase offset is applied to the zeroth point of the signal constellation before delay of quadrature component. After the OQPSK imaginary-component delay, the signal is normalized with unity power.

## What is input signal?

Input signal, specified as** an N S -element column vector of integers or bits, where N S is the number of samples. **

## What is QPSK in math?

Quadrature Phase Shift Keying (QPSK) is a form of** phase modulation technique, ** in which** two information bits (combined as one symbol) are modulated at once **, selecting one of the four possible carrier phase shift states.

## What is offset QPSK?

Offset QPSK is** essentially same as QPSK, except that the orthogonal car **rier signals on the I-channel and the Q-channel are staggered (one of them is delayed in time). In OQPSK, the orthogonal components cannot change states at the same time, this is because the components change state only at the middle of the symbol periods (due to the half symbol offset in the Q-channel). This eliminates 180°u000e phase shifts all together and the phase changes are limited to 0u000e° or u000690°u000e every bit period.

## What are the four possible initial signal phases?

Therefore, the four possible initial signal phases are** and radians. ** Equation (1) can be re-written as. The above expression indicates the use of two orthonormal basis functions: together with the inphase and quadrature signaling points: .

## Is QPSK the same as BPSK?

The performance simulation for the QPSK transmitter-receiver combination was also coded in the code given above and the resulting bit-error rate performance curve will be same as that of conventional BPSK. A QPSK signal essentially combines two orthogonally modulated BPSK signals. Therefore, the resulting performance curves for QPSK – Vs. bits-in-error – will be same as that of conventional BPSK.

## Does QPSK send data twice as much as BPSK?

Therefore, if the QPSK symbols were transmitted at same rate as BPSK, it is** clear ** that QPSK sends twice as much data as BPSK does. After oversampling and pulse shaping, it is intuitively clear that the signal on the I-arm and Q-arm are BPSK signals with symbol duration .

## Who is Mathuranathan Viswanathan?

Mathuranathan Viswanathan, is** an author ** @ gaussianwaves.com that has garnered worldwide readership. He is a masters in communication engineering and has 12 years of technical expertise in channel modeling and has worked in various technologies ranging from read channel, OFDM, MIMO, 3GPP PHY layer, Data Science & Machine learning.