mega constellation

mega constellation插图

Mega-constellations are composed ofmass-produced satellites with few backup systems. This consumer electronic model allows for short upgrade cycles and rapid expansions of capabilities,but also considerable discarded equipment. SpaceX will actively de-orbit its satellites at the end of their 5–6-year operational lives.Author:Aaron C. Boley, Michael ByersPublish Year:2021

Why are mega-constellations feasible?

These mega-constellations are feasible because we have learned how to build smaller satellites and launch them more cheaply. During the space shuttle era, launching a satellite into space cost roughly $24,800 per pound.

Are the mega constellations already here?

The Mega Constellations Are Already Here. The Time For Polite Concern Is Over Opinions expressed by Forbes Contributors are their own. A problem occurred. Try refreshing the page. Mega constellation launches are already coming thick and fast.

Is SpaceX’s Mega-constellation plan feasible?

SpaceX alone wants to send more than 4.5 times more satellites into orbit this decade than humans have ever launched since Sputnik. These mega-constellations are feasible because we have learned how to build smaller satellites and launch them more cheaply.

How much does an Omega Constellation cost?

As a point of reference, the all-steel 35mm Constellation with a quartz movement (ref. comes with an official retail price of just $2,700, while the 39mm automatic version in solid 18k yellow gold retails for $21,700. How Much Is An Omega Constellation?

How much does a SpaceX rocket weigh?

Reusable architecture and cheaper manufacturing mean we can strap dozens of them onto rockets to greatly lower the cost; a SpaceX Falcon 9 launch today costs about $1,240 per pound.

How many satellites can we launch at once?

We can now affordably build, launch, and operate tens of thousands of satellites in orbit at once.

Why are some scientists livid about satellites?

But that’s only if things work out. Some researchers are livid because they fear these objects will disrupt astronomy research.

How much did it cost to launch a satellite into space?

During the space shuttle era, launching a satellite into space cost roughly $24,800 per pound. A small communications satellite that weighed four tons cost nearly $200 million to fly up.

How many Starlink satellites does SpaceX have?

In total, Elon Musk’s SpaceX hopes to operate anywhere upwards of 12,000 Starlink satellites in orbit, vastly eclipsing the previous total number of 2,000 active satellites that orbited Earth. But it is, of course, not alone.

What is the goal of the mega constellation?

The goal is to blanket Earth in satellites in order to beam the internet to any corner of the globe – an arguably worthy endeavour with the added benefit of being incredibly lucrative.

When did SpaceX launch its first satellite?

We have known, since SpaceX launched the first satellites in its Starlink mega constellation back in May 2019 , that these satellites are bright. We have already seen their negative impact on astronomy.

Is SpaceX darkening its satellites?

Efforts by SpaceX to darken its satellites so far appear to have been moderately successful. But much, much more will need to be done to lessen the effects of both Starlink and other mega constellations on the night sky, not to mention the looming issue of space junk.

When is SATCON2?

A proposed SATCON2 that will look into “policy and regulation”, scheduled for early to mid-2021, will likely take place after SpaceX has already launched more than 1,000 Starlink satellites.

Is the increase in satellites in orbit bad?

However, without proper rules or regulations in place, the rapid increase of satellites in orbit poses not only considerable concerns about the impact on the night sky, but the ability to safely manage so many satellites in orbit without collisions.

Is it time to raise polite concerns about rapidly increasing the number of satellites in Earth orbit?

The priority now is to put in place best practices or regulations that will protect Earth’s orbit and our night sky for both this and future generations – and do it , ideally, pretty soon.

Syntactic Analysis

The first question that is bound to be asked by everyone is, What exactly is Syntactic Analysis? Syntactic analysis is described as the study of the logical meaning of specific phrases or portions of sentences.

About Parser

We already know parsers are used to implement parsing, but what is the definition of a parser? It is described as a software component meant to take input text data and provide a structural representation of the data after validation for correct syntax using formal grammar.

About Grammar

Parsing is done to analyze the grammar of a sentence, so we must have a basic idea about the concept of grammar. To explain the syntactic structure of well-formed programs, grammar is highly significant. They imply syntactical norms for dialogue in natural languages in the literary sense.

Syntactic analysis vs Lexical analysis

The main difference between syntactic analysis and lexical analysis is that lexical analysis is concerned with data cleaning and feature extraction with techniques like stemming, lemmatization, correcting misspelled words, and many more.


NLP is getting more and more popular every day as it has many applications like chatbots, voice assistants, speech recognition, and many more. Syntactic analysis is a very important part of NLP that helps in understanding the grammatical meaning of any sentence.

How many satellites are in OneWeb?

OneWeb later changed the architecture to include 640 satellites in 18 orbital planes circling the Earth at 1,200km. During the Royal Aeronautical Society lecture, Wyler announced that the company, which had a few months prior to that secured a $1.2bn investment from Softbank, was considering adding a further 2,000 satellites at different low-Earth orbit altitudes in later stages.

What is the name of the constellation Wyler created?

Wyler’s first shot at bridging the digital divide with satellites was the O3b constellation . The name stands for the Other 3 Billion, referring to the half of the world’s population unconnected to the internet. Launched in 2013, the constellation currently operates 12 satellites at 8,000km altitude covering mostly equatorial regions.

When did Wyler launch OneWeb?

However, while working mostly quietly and out of the media spotlight, OneWeb has been moving fast and appears on track to start launching first satellites in early 2018.

How far apart are the satellites?

The satellites will transmit signals from terrestrial gateways spaced approximately 5,000km apart to user terminals all around the globe, providing Wi-Fi, 3G and LTE coverage. The user terminals will smoothly transition from one satellite to the next as they appear within their reach, relying on next-generation high-throughput Qualcomm chipsets, Wyler explained.

What constellations were created to focus on professionals working in remote environments?

The first low-orbiting constellations such as Iridium and Globalstar were focusing on professionals working in remote environments rather than on low-income users in developing countries.

How many people in the world have no internet?

The Saint Helenians are among the 3.5 billion people from all over the world who live either with limited or no internet access at all, according to a 2016 report by the International Telecommunication Union (ITU). That means 47 per cent of the global population not being able to benefit from the knowledge gathered on the worldwide web or partake in digital economy.

What did Adam mean by the end of Netflix?

For Adam, it meant the end of Netflix, Spotify and BBC iPlayer. Skype video-calls with family members in the UK became nearly impossible.

How many satellites are in orbit?

The rise in orbiting satellites is astounding. There are currently more than 3,300 active artificial satellites in Earth orbit, according to the Union of Concerned Scientists, a science advocacy group. Meanwhile, the scientists behind new research note, generation 1 of SpaceX’s Starlink will, by itself, consist of 11,926 satellites, and generation 2 will have 30,000 more. OneWeb, Amazon’s Kuiper and China’s SatNet combined will deploy over 20,000 satellites.

How to mitigate the visible surface area of satellites?

Astronomers can also attempt to schedule their observations around the constellation trajectories, either by not taking images when satellites are in view or by pointing in slightly different directions. But this approach requires enormous coordination, since companies frequently change the orbits of their satellites.

How did astronomers determine the size of the satellites?

Then, they modeled each satellite’s size and bright ness, which depends greatly on the angle between the satellite and the sun as seen from Earth. They then folded these models into simulated observations with different kinds of astronomical instruments, such as wide-field giant telescopes and high-resolution spectrographs.

How will modern day astronomy be affected?

The team found that almost every aspect of modern-day astronomy will be affected in some way, because the satellites will generally be bright enough to be seen by even moderately sized professional telescopes.

How many satellite trails are there in a telescope?

Depending on the particular telescope, the time of year and the observing program, a typical science run observes anywhere from 0.01 to 20 satellite trails in every exposure. Narrow-field instruments, which image only a small portion of the sky at a time, will be the least affected, since they are unlikely to have a satellite cross into their field of view during any particular observation, the astronomers found.

Do megaconstellations reduce astronomy?

Advocates of the megaconstellations have argued that the high altitudes of the satellites will reduce their impact on astronomy and that only certain kinds of observation programs will be at risk.

Which hours of the night will suffer the most?

Observations made during the first and last hours of the night will suffer the most, since the angle of the satellites from the ground will make them appear the brightest and most visible, the team found.

Sensor Integration

MetaConstellation integrates with sensor constellations, allowing users to request collection without the complexity of orchestrating many satellites.

Real-world Insights

Users request insight from MetaConstellation rather than raw data. Ask a real world question and MetaConstellation determines the optimal mix of sensors to answer that question.

Tailored Algorithms

MetaConstellation leverages CI/CD AI model pipelines to find the best fit algorithm to answer user questions with every single collection.

Insights at the Edge

Users never have to start with the raw sensor data—they start with algorithmic insights from that data, whether in space or time.

Integrate Satellites

Utilize AI-deployed sensors to task and track satellites across wide areas. As objectives evolve, feedback is received, and models are retrained.

Insights Expanded

Through tasking and tracking, MetaConstellation integrates with other satellites to collect images over areas of interest, measure changes over time, and trigger more focused or frequent imaging.

AI-enabled Sensors

Leveraging Palantir’s Edge AI technology, MetaConstellation deploys algorithms closer to the sensors—either on board satellites or at ground stations.

What is the most attractive thing about Omega Constellation?

For both men’s and women’s models there are affordable quartz entry points in the current collection. Both ranges top-out with luxurious models crafted from solid gold, with artisanal dials and diamond-studded bezels, which offer a completely different aesthetic from the stainless steel entry-point.

How much does an Omega Constellation watch cost?

Retail prices for quartz-powered Omega Constellation watches start out at under $3,000 and quickly go up from there depending on the size, materials, and movement used. As a point of reference, the all-steel 35mm Constellation with a quartz movement (ref. comes with an official retail price of just $2,700, while the 39mm automatic version in solid 18k yellow gold retails for $31,700.

Why is the Manhattan considered the Omega constellation?

If human history were to be frozen today, it would be unfair to christen anything but the Manhattan as the quintessential Omega Constellation simply due to its ubiquity and longevity. The case claws may not be to everyone’s tastes, but they do give the family a very clear visual identity that Omega has become adept at selling to a specific portion of its audience.

What are the claws on a Manhattan watch called?

In the original designs, those claws (known as “Griffes ”) clamped down on the bezel, and tucked in beneath the snap-on caseback, holding the bezel and the crystal firmly in-place. Nowadays, they are simply there for decorative purposes and a nod to the origins of what has become the family’s most enduring format. The Manhattan design, which had originally been a very flat affair, was updated in 1995 to include a domed crystal that sat within the confines of the bezel, reducing the claws to a vestigial element.

What calibers are in the Pie Pan?

Although the 360-degree rotors fitted to the 500, 501, and 505 calibers that replaced the 35x series are excellent movements (and highly sought after), they lack a little bit of the anachronistic charm of their forerunners. That being said, they are significantly easier to come by, however rare they remain.

What calibers are replaced by 360 degree rotors?

Although the 360-degree rotors fitted to the 500, 501, and 505 calibers that replaced the 35x series are excellent movements (and highly sought after), they lack a little bit of the anachronistic charm of their forerunners. That being said, they are significantly easier to come by, however rare they remain.

When did the Globemaster come out?

Since then, however, the Constellation range has received very little in the way of an update. Although the Globemaster (which was released in 2015) is technically part of the Constellation collection (and certainly looks the part), it does not bear the name on the dial and so is discounted by many from the official history of the line.