beidou constellation status

beidou constellation status插图

BeiDou Status By December 2011, the BeiDou system went into operation on a trial basis providing initial passive positioning navigation and timing services for the whole Asia-Pacific region with a constellation of10 satellites(5 GEO satellites and 5 IGSOsatellites) and the Initial Operational Service was declared officially available.Level:BasicTitle:BeiDou Future and EvolutionsYear of Publication:2011

What is the Beidou navigation satellite system?

1. Overview The BeiDou Navigation Satellite System (BDS) has been independently constructed and operated by China with an eye on the needs of the country’s national security and economic and social development.

What is the Beidou constellation?

Beidou is the Chinese name of the Big Dipper constellation which was used in ancient navigation to locate the North Star.

What is BeiDou and how does it work?

Beidou is already in operation for the Chinese and Asia-Pacific Area with global availability planned by 2020 when all satellites will have been launched. The China Satellite Navigation Project Center is in charge of program management. The concept for a Chinese Navigation System was first presented in 1983.

When will BeiDou be available in the world?

Beidou is already in operation for the Chinese and Asia-Pacific Area with global availability planned by 2020 when all satellites will have been launched. The China Satellite Navigation Project Center is in charge of program management.

What is gradualness in BDS?

Gradualness refers to carry out the BDS development in a phased approach, to enhance BDS service performance, and to boost the development of satellite navigation industries in a comprehensive, coordinated and sustainable manner.

What are the development principles of China?

The Development Principles. China upholds the principles of “independence, openness, compatibility and gradualness ” in the BDS construction and development. Independence refers to uphold independent construction, development and operation of BDS, and to acquire the capability to independently provide satellite navigation services to global users.

What is BDS in China?

As a temporal-spatial infrastructure of national significance, the BDS provides all-time, all-weather and high-accuracy positioning, navigation and timing services to global users.

What is openness in satellite navigation?

Openness refers to provide open satellite navigation services free of charge, and to encourage all-scale, multi-level and high-quality international cooperation and exchange.

What are the characteristics of BDS?

BDS possesses the following characteristics: First, its space segment is a hybrid constellation consisting of satellites in three kinds of orbits. In comparison with other navigation satellite systems, BDS operates more satellites in high orbits to offer better anti-shielding capabilities, which is particularly observable in terms of performance in the low-latitude areas. Second, BDS provides navigation signals of multiple frequencies, and is able to improve service accuracy by using combined multi-frequency signals. Third, BDS integrates navigation and communication function, and possesses multiple service capabilities, namely, positioning, navigation and timing, short message communication, international search and rescue, satellite-based augmentation, ground augmentation and precise point positioning, etc.

What are the development goals of BDS?

The BDS development aims to build a world-class navigation satellite system to meet the needs of the country’s national security as well as economic and social development; to provide continuous, stable and reliable services for global users; to develop the BDS-related industries to support China’s economic …

What is BDS development?

The BDS development follows a model of developing regional service capacities, then gradually extending the services globally. This practice has blazed a path for building a satellite navigation system with Chinese characteristics, and enriched the development models for navigation satellite systems worldwide.

What is gradualness in BDS?

Gradualness refers to carry out the BDS development in a phased approach, to enhance BDS service performance, and to boost the development of satellite navigation industries in a comprehensive, coordinated and sustainable manner.

What are the development principles of China?

The Development Principles. China upholds the principles of “independence, openness, compatibility and gradualness ” in the BDS construction and development. Independence refers to uphold independent construction, development and operation of BDS, and to acquire the capability to independently provide satellite navigation services to global users.

What is BDS in China?

As a temporal-spatial infrastructure of national significance, the BDS provides all-time, all-weather and high-accuracy positioning, navigation and timing services to global users.

What is BDS space?

BDS possesses the following characteristics: First, its space segment is a hybrid constellation consisting of satellites in three kinds of orbits. In comparison with other navigation satellite systems, BDS operates more satellites in high orbits to offer better anti-shielding capabilities, which is particularly observable in terms …

What is openness in satellite navigation?

Openness refers to provide open satellite navigation services free of charge, and to encourage all-scale, multi-level and high-quality international cooperation and exchange.

What are the development goals of BDS?

The BDS development aims to build a world-class navigation satellite system to meet the needs of the country’s national security as well as economic and social development; to provide continuous, stable and reliable services for global users; to develop the BDS-related industries to support China’s economic …

What is BDS development?

The BDS development follows a model of developing regional service capacities, then gradually extending the services globally. This practice has blazed a path for building a satellite navigation system with Chinese characteristics, and enriched the development models for navigation satellite systems worldwide.

What is RNSS payload?

RNSS also includes an L-band uplink receiver and laser reflector for orbit determination. This payload works on the same principle as GPS and Galileo using similar frequency bands. First Beidou 3-M Satellite during Integration – Photo: SASTIND.

What is Beidou 3?

Beidou 3 (Compass Navigation Satellite System) Image: beidou.gov.cn. Image: CAST. The Beidou-3M/G/I satellites represent the orbital segment of the third phase of the Chinese Beidou navigation system which uses satellites in Medium Earth Orbit and Geosynchronous Orbit and is also known as the Compass Navigation Satellite System.

What is the name of the constellation of the North Star?

Beidou is the Chinese name of the Big Dipper constellation which was used in ancient navigation to locate the North Star. The Beidou Global Navigation system was outlined for a step-wise implementation starting with an experimental system consisting of three satellites in Geostationary Orbit, located above the Chinese territory to provide local …

How much does a satellite weigh?

Documentation shows that each GEO satellite weighs 4,600 Kilograms while the IGSO satellites weigh 4,200kg and only generate 6,200 Watts of power.

What is RDSS antenna?

The RDSS (Radio Determination Satellite Service) payload of the Beidou-3G satellites consists of a high-power S-Band transponder, a low-noise L-Band amplifier and frequency generator, a phased array L-Band antenna, an L-/S-Band dish antenna and a C-Band antenna. RDSS uses the original position retrieval including the central ground station to provide compatibility of the new system with existing Beidou-1 terminals. The RNSS (Radio Navigation Satellite Service) payload uses ultra stable timing signals delivered by an atomic clock to generate L-band signals that are transmitted through an antenna array.

How much power does the Beidou satellite have?

The Beidou satellites will have a mass around 4,600 Kilograms featuring two three-segment solar arrays that generate 6,800 Watts of electrical power stored in batteries and distributed to the various systems and the payload.

What is the name of the constellation that China uses to locate the North Star?

Beidou was approved as a program in 1993 to provide China with independent access to regional and global navigation, no longer relying on foreign systems like the American GPS and Russian Glonass System. Beidou is the Chinese name of the Big Dipper constellation which was used in ancient navigation to locate the North Star.

How much power does the Beidou satellite have?

The Beidou satellites will have a mass around 4,600 kg featuring two three-segment solar arrays that generate 6,800 W of electrical power stored in batteries and distributed to the various systems and the payload. The satellite uses state of the art navigation systems including star and Earth sensors & attitude actuators providing excellent stabilization on all three axes. Stationkeeping accuracy in Geostationary Orbit is ±0.05º.

What is the CNSS communication scheme?

The communication access scheme of the CNSS signals will be CDMA (Code Division Multiple Access).

What is the Chinese name for the Big Dipper?

In the first decade of the 21st century, China is in the process of developing its own navigation satellite constellation known as CNSS (Compass Navigation Satellite System), or BeiDou-2 in its Chinese name. BeiDou is the Chinese name of the Big Dipper constellation. The BeiDou-2 system will be based on its current regional Compass Satellite …

How is RDSS calculated?

In RDSS, the user position is computed by a ground station using the round trip time of signals exchanged via GEO satellite. The RDSS Long term feature further includes: 70)

What is CNSS based on?

The CNSS spacecraft series is based on the DFH-3 (DongFangHong 3) satellite bus, with a design life of 8 years (the DFH-3 bus provides a medium-capacity platform and has a communication satellite heritage). The DFH-3 bus is 3-axis stabilized providing the power as well as guidance and control needed for navigation satellite services. The DFH-3 bus is being built by CAST (China Academy of Space Technology) corporation; the Dongfanghong (DFH) Satellite Company of Beijing is part of CAST.

What is the interoperability of the compass?

Coordinating Compass/BeiDou-2 with other GNSS constellations: Interoperability is one of the most important aspects in the design of the Compass timing system ; the time differences of BDT – GPST and BDT – GST (Galileo System Time) are measured in the Compass central control station and will later be broadcast as part of the navigation messages of the GNSS systems. 24)

How many satellites are in BDS-3?

The BDS-3 system will consist of 30 satellites. – China aims to launch the last BDS-3 satellite in June to complete the construction of the constellation and provide high-precision and reliable positioning, navigation and timing services around the world.

How much does DMG increase?

DMG dealt by Normal and Charged Attacks is increased by 15%. ATK SPD of Normal and Charged Attacks is increased by 15%.

What happens when normal attacks hit?

When Normal and Charged Attacks hit, they create a lightning discharge that can jump between opponents, dealing Electro DMG.

How long does a bubble last in Beidou?

When you hold the skill, there will be a bubble around you that lasts for a fraction of a second. If you get hit in the time frame the bubble is still up, it gives you the maximum damage for the skill (same as if Beidou was hit twice).

What talent is active when you switch characters?

Off-field effects: This talent’s effects remain active if the player switches characters. This includes the shield created when Beidou has her 1st constellation, Sea Beast’s Scourge.

What is Beidou’s hair color?

Beidou is a tall woman whose beauty strikes one senseless, like a flash of roaring thunder. She has long, waist-length dark brown hair that flows like the waves of the sea. The top of her hair is tied up with an intricate gold hairpin with a pale blue tassel hanging from one end.

What is Beidou’s ability?

Pairing burning grass, the Traveler’s Palm vortex, and her Tidecaller ability can be a devastating combo against large groups of enemies, particularly with wooden shields.

What happens if a shield breaks?

If the shield breaks, the player will take the rest of the remaining damage used to break the shield.